Clinical manifestations and treatments of ocular toxoplasmosis

Priscilla Dwianggita

Priscilla Dwianggita
Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia. Email:
Online First: March 26, 2019 | Cite this Article
Dwianggita, P. 2019. Clinical manifestations and treatments of ocular toxoplasmosis. Bali Journal of Ophthalmology 2(2). DOI:10.15562/bjo.v2i2.57

Ocular toxoplasmosis is a progressive necrotizing retinitis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may be congenital or acquired through ingestion of uncooked meat, contaminated vegetables or water. A focal fluffy white lesion with necrotizing retinitis or retinochoroiditis adjacent to a variably pigmented chorioretinal scar are the common typical findings. Imaging of the retina and serology test can be helpful in confirming ocular toxoplasmosis. Treatment aimed at reducing the severity of the disease by halting parasite replication thus minimizing the lesion size. Multiple drugs combinations of antibiotics and corticosteroids are needed to prevent vision loss. Beside the classic “triple-drug therapy”, combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and corticosteroid or intravitreal injection of clindamycin are tolerable alternatives to pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine.

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