Parental myopic status and its relations to early onset myopia in children and adolescent in Bali

NLPN Sukmawati , IGPS Wijaya, Putu Rustama Putra

NLPN Sukmawati
Internship Doctor at Tabanan General Hospital. Email:

IGPS Wijaya
Internship Doctor at Bangli General Hospital, Bali - Indonesia

Putu Rustama Putra
Ophtalmologist at Tabanan General Hospital, Bali - Indonesia
Online First: December 02, 2017 | Cite this Article
Sukmawati, N., Wijaya, I., Putra, P. 2017. Parental myopic status and its relations to early onset myopia in children and adolescent in Bali. Bali Journal of Ophthalmology 1(1): 18-21. DOI:10.15562/bjo.v1i1.16

Introduction and Objectives:  Environmental and parental myopia were shown to be associated with the risk of myopia.Genetic factors may have a greater contribution to early development and degree of refractive error2 but some studies also indicates role of visual behaviors.3This study was aimed to compare proportion of myopic subjects, onset of myopia, myopic degree according to their parental myopic status and possible contribution of children habit.

Methods: This study is a cross sectional design involving subjects aged 12-25 years old in Bali, using google form questionnaire. Onset and degree of myopia were summarized based on parental myopic status on a chi square crosstabulation. Multivariate analysis were conducted to assess factors that may associate to myopia such as sex,gadget and reading spending hour.

Result: From 444 samples eligible proportion of myopic subjects (62.5%) that has myopic parents was higher compared to non myopic parents (p<0.001). Among all subjects that has genetic predisposition from both parents, proportion of early onset myopia were significantly higher (54.7%) compared to late-onset and no myopia (p<0.001). Although proportion of subjects that has moderate to high myopia was higher in myopic parent (61%) compared to subjects with no myopic parent (39%),the difference was not significant  (p=0.822). Multivariate analysis showed that parental myopic status has strongest relation toward myopic status (p<0.01) followed by gadget spending hour,female sex, reading spending hour.

Conclusion Parental myopic status was the most important factor associated with early onset myopia, with smaller contributions from sex, reading spending hours and gadget spending hours.

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